Adyghes (Circassians) are the indigenous nation in Northwestern Caucasus, – was spoken in the reference. – Folk customs, ceremonies, traditions, culture and the national language of Adyghean ethnos developed in this territory within millenia. The ancestors of the modern Adyghe-Abkhazes created the Maykop archeological culture dated the IV millenium B.C.
Since the end of the XVIII century the Russian Empire had a colonial war against Circassians. The purpose of that war for the Russian autocracy was not just capture of territories and conquest of Circassians, but also utter annihilation of the people, eviction of the remained part of it out of the limits of the historical Native land. 1864 became the final date of the end of the Russian-Caucasian war and simultaneously the year since which Circassians had ceased to exist as one ethnos. Since that period of time mass eviction of Adyghes to the Ottoman Empire was started and it proceeded till 1914. Colonists from Russia systematically occupied the lands Adyghes had abandoned. Simultaneously with that imperial Russia pursued the strategy of violent assimilation of remained Adyghes (Circassians).
According to Adolph Berge (1828 – 1886) considered at that time to be an official, and now – a tendentious historian of the Russian-Caucasian war, from among over one million Adyghes (Circassians) in the war they lost more than 400 thousand people; 497 thousand Adyghes were deported; about 80 thousand men stayed on their historical native land.
After the Revolution of 1917 the rests of Circassian people had received autonomies: Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR), Karachaevo-Circassian and Adyghean autonomous regions, Shapsug national area. Though the Soviet authority had proclaimed equality of every people and every nation, in reality they were far from resolution of the Circassian problem – returning of the descendants of the expelled Circassians to their native land and creation of a uniform national formation in the structure of the USSR. Moreover, the national policy of that period did not seriously differ from the previous policy of the tsar state: that could be illustrated with the names of the national formations. Kabardians (Adyghean sub-ethnos) were united with Balkarians – people related to Karachais. Besleneys (Adyghean sub-ethnos, nowadays named Circassian people) – with Karachais. Shapsugs (Adyghean sub-ethnos), living near to then Adyghean autonomous region, were formed in a separate national area that on May, 24th, 1945 was liquidated.
As a whole the history of creation and abolition of Shapsug national area in many respects was indicative for all Adyghean regions of Russia. Authorities persistently inculcated the idea of “inexpediency” of the area’s existence both during its creation and later when it had been already functioning. It was considered that way during the cutting of the borders the area – it did not include an entrance to the Black Sea coast, to railways or highways, other vital objects. During delivering Shapsugs lands for agricultural needs the plots were given in the places remote from the roads. Chronic underfinancing of the area was practiced so that the area could not develop its own life-support infrastructure.
“The true reason for the local authorities’ counteraction to creation of Shapsug statehood, – wrote Tamara Polovinkina, the author of a number of monographies about Shapsugs, – was that in 1920s (like before) they considered politically inexpedient and even dangerous to give Shapsugs (and Adyghes in general) an access to the sea”.
Inter-regional interaction of the leaders of Adyghean national formations during the Stalin times ended in GULAG, in the intervals of so-called “thawing weather” or during “stagnation period” it was categorically oppressed. Publications of materials, concerning the period of the Russian-Caucasian war, access to the archives of that period were under a private interdiction. The official policies were reduced to hushing up, as subjects of publications – to purposeful distortion of reasons and scales of the catastrophe of Adyghean ethnos.
In 1991 Russian Federation declared about democratic and legal way of the state development. In that connection Adyghea, having refused the status of autonomous region, proclaimed itself republic. That was stated in the Declaration of Adyghea state sovereignty in 1991, in the Federal contract of 1992, in the Constitution of Russian Federation of 1993 and, at last, in the Constitution of Adyghea Republic of 1995.
During that time till nowadays Russian Federation was shaken – and is now – by economic crisises with heavy consequences for all the citizens of Russian Federation. Adyghea republic, being a part of the federation, has also gone through all the difficulties of the reforms of the federal center, but failing of standard of living changed the condition of Adyghean people in a greater measure. For today in Adyghea the indigenous population’s death rate exceeds the birth rate (minus 2000 people a year). The small ethnos began reducing even more, and it means that in percentage terms in the republic Adyghes become lesser numerous; so that influences the political decisions both of the republican, and the federal levels.
It should be noted that during B.N.Yeltsin’s presidency the national interests of republics were restrained much lesser than during the previous or the present periods. If there were some nationalism, it just existed in a household form. However after V.V.Putin’s coming to powers of the president the country began departing from the democratic way of state development.
On June 21st, 2001 the president of Russian Federation signed the Decree # 741 “About commission at president of Russian Federation on preparation of offers on differentiation of subjects of conducting and powers among federal governmental bodies, bodies of the government of subjects of Russian Federation and institutions of local governments”. On the basis of the decree infringing the Federal Contract of 1992 (about differentiation of powers between the federal center and republics) they began withdrawing from the legislations of republics laws, concerning powers and rights in the sphere of the national interests’ observance.
As a result of that in Adyghea they had abolished about 90 acts, positions, laws protecting the rights of Adyghes, which corresponded to the international norms and in their majority did not contradict also to Russian legislation. In particular, from the Constitution of Adyghea Republic they had withdrawn: 1) regulations about sovereignty of Adyghea Republic; 2) about obligatory knowledge of president of republic two state languages – Adygheeyan and Russian; 3) about parity representation in the State Soviet-Khase of Adyghea Republic; 4) the republican Law “About repatriates” of 1997, as others were abolished.
Among the mentioned acts under the protest of the Office of Public Prosecutor of Adyghea Republic the Law “About referendum of Adyghea Republic” which provided interdiction on carrying out of referendum about status and borders of republic, was abolished, too. At the moment there is a process of pushing through the State Soviet-Khase of Adyghea a bill “About referendum of Adyghea Republic” in which those items are not present.
Adoption of the law on referendum in such version would contradict the United Nations Organization Charter (clause 1, item 2; clause 55; clause 73), numerous international legal acts where the principle of equality and self-determination of nations is affirmed, as well as the Constitution of Russian Federation (clause 5, item 3; clause 15, item 4). In Adyghea Republic representatives of various nations live. They have all the civil rights, stipulated by international-legal acts and the Constitution of Russian Federation in full, and they used their right for self-determination in the form of national-state formations outside Adyghea Republic. Carrying out of a referendum on change of the status or territory of Adyghea in the conditions when quantity of the indigenous population in the republic makes only 24 percent, would lead to the predicted result – the republic’s liquidation. It would mean further genocide against Adyghes (Circassians), but in the other form. However on such effect the federal center counts.
From a tacit sanction of the law enforcement bodies in Adyghea nowadays forces, which should execute a new genocide, are actively formed. At the last VI congress of the republican social movement “Union of Slavs of Adyghea” passed on December 18th in Maykop, those forces were united in the political block and passed the joint program.
In the resolution adopted at the congress, it was written the following: “Union of Slavs of Adyghea will take part in the elections of deputies of State Soviet-Khase of Adyghea Republic on March, 12th, 2006 in the union with Cossacks, “Economic union of industrialists and businessmen” and other Russian national organizations, as well as those organizations which activities do not contradict Russian people’s interests”. “We call up all the citizens, – it was also spoken, – to take part in the elections and to support association of those candidates who will incur the duty to pass the law on referendum in Adyghea Republic and to lead such referendum about integration with Krasnodar territory”.
The leader of the Adyghea republican branch of the National majestic party of Russia sounded at the congress his appeal to Russians “to use more actively lawful ways to get armed”. The weapons, as he said, “are necessary for protection of the national interests of Russians both in Russia, and abroad”.
Thus, Adyghean (Circassian) ethnos like 140 years ago remains in conditions when it can be liquidated physically. Initiators of the national republic’s liquidation – in the territory of the geographical center of the indigenous population’s historical lands – count on that: during escalation of the conflict Adyghes would be declared a next nation-terrorist which should be liquidated. Numerous references concerned the problem to bodies of the federal authority, to the top management of the country are left without any reply. We consider that it is useless to believe on its resolution at that level.
We address to you with our desperate request to interfere immediately in the situation in Adyghea with the purpose of preservation of its statehood in the form of sovereign republic. We entrust you the destiny of our people and call up to send in Adyghea Republic a special commission to analyze the above-mentioned facts and to give objective estimation according to results of your check. We would like representatives of the Council of Europe to take the situation developing now in our republic under control and to regulate it according to the principles of the international law.
Public Movement of Adygeya “Circassian Congress”
Address: 385000 Россия, Респ. Адыгея, г. Майкоп, ул. Советская, 201, 3-й этаж, 2 каб.
АРОД “Черкесский Конгресс”
Tel. +7 8772 527288
Cell. +7 928 461 6764
Public Movement of Karachaevo-Circassia “Circassian Congress”
Cell. +7 928 386 1177
Public Movement “Adyghe Khase” of Adygeya
Tel. +7 8772 525511
Cell. +7 918 420 7733
Kabardino-Balkarian Public Legal Expert Center
Tel. +7 8662 406582
Independent Social Research Center of Kabardino-Balkaria
Tel. +7 8662 421042
Cell. +7 928 700 1540
Why did I suggest horse racing was great family entertainment?So, under a great deal of duress, the Little Nutball finally agreed to allow us to pre-empt the replaying of Ruby Gloom so her dad and I could watch the Kentucky Derby, which we had recorded on the PVR Saturday afternoon. Fortunately (or perhaps not-so fortunately, as it turned out), we never actually get to read the Sunday New York Times on Sunday (I usually snatch a section or two per day and hopefully have worked my way through it by midweek), so we hadn’t known the outcome when we watched the race on Sunday evening.
In any case, we all had fun listening to the lead-in commentary, Gayego’s owners were Cuban dissidents who had spent time in jail; Colonel John’s jockey Corey Nakatani’s Japanese-American dad was born in a WWII internment camp and actually spent time at Santa Anita track when it was a relocation camp; and of course, beautiful Eight Belles, was our favorite horse, the only filly in the 20-horse field.
“I hate Big Brown,” the Nutball kept repeating of the horse favored to win.
“Sweetie, all the horses are great horses, and we shouldn’t hate any of them. All the horses are awesome!”
“Yeah, I don’t care. I ONLY love Eight Belles. She’s a girl. I want Eight Belles to win! Stupid Big Brown…[loud grumbling followed by indeterminate mumbling...]”
In any case, the race was on, it was an exciting race with many twists and suddenly,
“Mommy, mommy, Eight Belles AND Big Brown won!”
“Uh, Sweetie, Big Brown won, but Eight Belles was second place. That’s great! She came in second!”
“Does that mean she won?”
“A little bit, but mostly Big Brown won. But she came in second!”
“Stupid Big Brown…” she muttered.
“Big Brown is a lovely horse! And Eight Belles came in second, Sweetie! That’s great!”
But then, horse racing fans, you know the rest. Soon thereafter, Eight Belles was on the ground after breaking both her legs a quarter mile after crossing the wire in second place. She was euthanized on the track. We told the Nutball that Eight Belles was going to an animal hospital because it seemed sort of cruel and unusual to say, “Well, Sweetie, she went out in a blaze of glory after beating 18 colts and now she’s in horse heaven.”
“This race was stupid!”
Which made me really rethink my take on thoroughbred racing. I’m no aficionado, but I love watching it every so often, but whenever I REALLY like a horse - the last one was Canadian Triple Crown winner Izvestia, euthanized in 1991 after breaking his leg - something like his happens and it seems more and more like a bloodsport. More recently, for instance, Barbaro, the 2006 Kentucky Derby winner, was euthanized eight months after breaking his leg during the 2006 Preakness, and last fall, a horse named George Washington was euthanized on the track after breaking his leg during the Breeder’s Cup.
Clearly, thoroughbred racing has become less appropriate as family entertainment. Some blame dirt tracks, others blame selectively breeding racehorses too much for speed at the expense of strength and soundness, or, in this case, racing a filly against colts. I couldn’t say, but the Little Nutball and I are going back to Pros Versus Joes for our sporting fix. Watching some blowhard twenty something IT guy from Connecticut get humiliated on the court by a middle aged ex-athlete is less poetic – but also a lot less heartbreaking.
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In al-Muwatta, Imam Malik reports a hadith with a mursal isnad from ‘Ata’ ibn Yassar, who said:
“The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) was in the mosque, when a man with unkempt hair and an untidy beard came in. The Prophet (S.A.W.) pointed to him, as if indicating to him that he should tidy up his hair and beard. The man went and did so, then returned. The Prophet (S.A.W.) said, ‘Is this not better than that any one of you should come with unkempt hair, looking like the Shaytan?”
Islam lays great emphasis on having a clean and neat appearance at all times. The Prophet (SAW) always took note of people’s appearance. Whenever he saw a man that was badly dressed or had untidy hair, he would criticize him. Essentially what our Prophet (SAW) was implying is that we should not neglect ourselves. Imam Ahmad and al-Nisa’i report that Jabir (R.A.A.) said: “The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) came to visit us, and he saw an unkempt man whose hair was going in all directions, so he said, ‘Could he not find anything with which to calm his head?’”
Here I took special note of the Prophet (SAW) that he should ‘CALM’ his head -:). The likening of a man to Shaytan by our Prophet shows that Islam gives the utmost importance to being neat, clean and sharp at all times! We have all seen Muslims with unkempt hair and scruffy over-sized clothes.
People have and will continue to judge you by your appearance. The harsh reality is that we make decisions about people within the first 3 seconds of meeting them; we then spend the next 90 seconds trying to confirm our first impressions. This means that before you even open your mouth you’ve been sized up and profiled. Knowing this, a Muslim should always dress neatly, professionally, and appropriately. The fact is you never know who you are going to meet; at anytime you may run into a potential convert, a client, a future employer, or for those singles out there, the love of your life. And like it or not, they are going to form their initial impression of you based on how you look. Made within a few seconds, first impressions are powerful and should not be taken lightly. We often observe a person before we speak with them. Human beings by nature look to make sense of what our eyes are showing us. Using our personal experiences, we categorize individuals; we pick-up on a key feature that has meaning to us, and then associate that person with it. If what you are wearing is doing all the talking for you, make sure it is sending the message you want. I think this message is for everyone. It doesn’t matter whether you’re a white, blue, or green collar worker. At work you should be the best dressed in your field. At one point in my life, I was a blue-collar worker. My uniform shirt was always ironed and pressed and I wore a nice pair of khaki slacks to work everyday.
Here is another favorite episode in Muslim history of mines. Imam Abu Hanifah (R.A.) always took care to dress well and to ensure that he smelled clean and fresh, and urged others to do likewise. One day he met a man who used to attend his circle, who was dressed in scruffy clothes. He took him to one side and offered him one thousand dirhams with which to smarten himself up. The man told him, “I have money, I do not need this.” Abu Hanifah admonished him: “Have you not heard the hadith, ‘Allah (S.W.T.) loves to see the signs of His gifts on His servant’? So you have to change yourself, and not appear offensive to your friend.”
So here it is; we have the great Imam Abu Hanifah (R.A.) being a fashion consultant. Imam Malik (RA), the inspiration for the Maliki school of thought also dressed well starting as a young man. His mother was particular about his appearance and would dress him in his best attire to go out and learn fiqh and hadith. Imam Malik (RA) would continue this habit later in life. Whenever he would go out and teach hadith and fiqh, he would dress in his best clothes and then go out and teach the people. Ibu Muslim Al Khuzai wrote that: When Imam Malik would intend to read, write or give class on Hadith, he would first make Wudu, would put on his best clothes, would then wear perfume, and would comb his beard. Imam Malik dressed and prepared himself for his profession. Dressing professionally and taking care of the essentials like personal hygiene improves your discipline. One of the powers of clothing and excellent hygiene is that it can transform an individual’s state of mind. The transformative effective is powerful.